Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN)

Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm is an oddment diseases of pregnancy. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm occurs when the invasive system used for placental invasion or pregnancy implantation goes our of control. If a mother produces an extreme excess of hyperglycosylated hCG in the third trimester of pregnancy, it can drive the small amount of placental tissue remaining in the uterus after delivery of the baby and placenta, the extravillous cytotrophoblast, to grow out of control and invade the whole body with cancer-like metastases in the lung and brain. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm can also be limited in some cases to the uterus and uterus and pelvis

Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm is not really a cancer, it is extravillous cytotrophoblast cells invading the body in a manner reminiscent of cancer but actually is just the normal placental invasion system gone wild. This is driven by the autocrine that normally drives the placental growth and invasive system or hyperglycosylated hCG.

Physicians call the disease choriocarcinoma when pathology and histology has confirmed the identity of the cells. Until surgery is performed pathology and histology are not possible. As such some choriocarcinoma-like cases are always called gestational trophoblastic neoplasm, until surgery is performed and pathology and histology can identify them as choriocarcinoma cells. In this respect, choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm are basically one and the same disease. This strange disease generally respond well to chemotherapy treatment.

Cole LA, hCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies. Am J Cancer Res 2011:2;22-35.

Cole LA. Hyperglycosylated hCG. Placenta 2007;28:977-986.